The Ballard Score Maturational Assessment of Gestational Age in Newly Born Infants

Neuromuscular Maturity

Ballard Score Training - Performing the Assessment of Neuromuscular Maturity

1. Posture
Total body muscle tone is reflected in the infant's preferred posture at rest and resistance to stretch of individual muscle groups.
2. Square Window
Wrist flexibility and/or resistance to extensor stretching are responsible for the resulting angle of flexion at the wrist.
3. Arm Recoil
This maneuver focuses on passive flexor tone of the biceps muscle by measuring the angle of recoil following very brief extension of the upper extremity.
4. Popliteal Angle
This maneuver assesses maturation of passive flexor tone about the knee joint by testing for resistance to extension of the lower extremity.
5. Scarf Sign
This maneuver tests the passive tone of the flexors about the shoulder girdle.
6. Heel to Ear
This maneuver measures passive flexor tone about the pelvic girdle by testing for passive flexion or resistance to extension of posterior hip flexor muscles.