Neuromuscular Maturity

Ballard Score Training - Performing the Assessment of Neuromuscular Maturity

1. Posture

Total body muscle tone is reflected in the infant's preferred posture at rest and resistance to stretch of individual muscle groups.

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2. Square Window

Wrist flexibility and/or resistance to extensor stretching are responsible for the resulting angle of flexion at the wrist.

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3. Arm Recoil

This maneuver focuses on passive flexor tone of the biceps muscle by measuring the angle of recoil following very brief extension of the upper extremity.

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4. Popliteal Angle

This maneuver assesses maturation of passive flexor tone about the knee joint by testing for resistance to extension of the lower extremity.

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5. Scarf Sign

This maneuver tests the passive tone of the flexors about the shoulder girdle.

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6. Heel to Ear

This maneuver measures passive flexor tone about the pelvic girdle by testing for passive flexion or resistance to extension of posterior hip flexor muscles.

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